Laboratory Microbe References and Definitions refer to the collection of standard terminology and definitions used in microbiology research and practice. Microbes, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa, are ubiquitous in the environment and play important roles in various biological processes. In the laboratory, researchers and technicians use precise terminology to describe the properties and characteristics of different microbes.
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|Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive, facultatively aerobic sporeformer whose cells are large rods and whose spores do not swell the sporangium. These and other characteristics, including biochemical features, are used to differentiate and confirm the presence B. cereus, although these characteristics are shared with B. cereus var. mycoides, B. thuringiensis and >B. anthracis. Differentiation of these organisms depends upon determination of motility (most B. cereus are motile), presence of toxin crystals (B. thuringiensis), hemolytic activity (B. cereus and others are beta hemolytic whereas B. anthracis is usually nonhemolytic), and rhizoid growth which is characteristic of B. cereus var. mycoides.
|Salmonella is a rod-shaped, motile bacterium — nonmotile exceptions S. gallinarum and S. pullorum–, nonsporeforming and Gram-negative. There is a widespread occurrence in animals, especially in poultry and swine. Environmental sources of the organism include water, soil, insects, factory surfaces, kitchen surfaces, animal feces, raw meats, raw poultry, and raw seafoods, to name only a few.
|Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic Gram-positive spore-forming rod that produces a potent neurotoxin.The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in foods that are incorrectly or minimally processed. Seven types (A, B, C, D, E, F and G) of botulism are recognized, based on the antigenic specificity of the toxin produced by each strain. Types A, B, E and F cause human botulism. Types C and D cause most cases of botulism in animals. Animals most commonly affected are wild fowl and poultry, cattle, horses and some species of fish. Although type G has been isolated from soil in Argentina, no outbreaks involving it have been recognized.
|Gram-positive, pherical bacterium (coccus) which on microscopic examination appears in pairs, short chains, or bunched, grape-like clusters.
|Gram-negative slender, curved, and motile rod. It is a microaerophilic organism, which means it has a requirement for reduced levels of oxygen. It is relatively fragile, and sensitive to environmental stresses (e.g., 21% oxygen, drying, heating, disinfectants, acidic conditions). Because of its microaerophilic characteristics the organism requires 3 to 5% oxygen and 2 to 10% carbon dioxide for optimal growth conditions. This bacterium is now recognized as an important enteric pathogen
|This is a Gram-positive bacterium, motile by means of flagella. Some studies suggest that 1-10% of humans may be intestinal carriers of L. monocytogenes. It has been found in at least 37 mammalian species, both domestic and feral, as well as at least 17 species of birds and possibly some species of fish and shellfish. It can be isolated from soil, silage, and other environmental sources. L. monocytogenes is quite hardy and resists the deleterious effects of freezing, drying, and heat remarkably well for a bacterium that does not form spores. Most L. monocytogenes are pathogenic to some degree.
|single celled animal, i.e., a protozoa, that moves with the aid of five flagella.
|Marketplace with the Reoviridae family. They have a genome consisting of 11 double-stranded RNA segments surrounded by a distinctive two-layered protein capsid. Particles are 70 nm in diameter and have a buoyant density of 1.36 g/ml in CsCl.
|The genus Streptococcus is comprised of Gram-positive, microaerophilic cocci (round), which are not motile and occur in chains or pairs. The genus is defined by a combination of antigenic, hemolytic, and physiological characteristics
|Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)
|There are four recognized classes of enterovirulent E. coli (collectively referred to as the EEC group) that cause gastroenteritis in humans. Among these are the enterotoxigenic (ETEC) strains. They comprise a relatively small proportion of the species and have been etiologically associated with diarrheal illness of all age groups from diverse global locations. The organism frequently causes diarrhea in infants in less developed countries and in visitors there from industrialized countries. The etiology of this cholera-like illness has been recognized for about 20 years.
|Hepatitis A Virus
|Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is classified with the enterovirus group of the Picornaviridae family. HAV has a single molecule of RNA surrounded by a small (27 nm diameter) protein capsid and a buoyant density in CsCl of 1.33 g/ml. Many other picornaviruses cause human disease, including polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and rhinoviruses (cold viruses).
|The Norwalk virus family
|Norwalk virus is the prototype of a family of unclassified small round structured viruses (SRSVs) which may be related to the . They contain a positive strand RNA genome of 7.5 kb and a single structural protein of about 60 kDa. The 27-32 nm viral particles have a buoyant density of 1.39-1.40 g/ml in CsCl. The family consists of several serologically distinct groups of viruses that have been named after the places where the outbreaks occurred. In the U.S., the Norwalk and Montgomery County agents are serologically related but distinct from the Hawaii and Snow Mountain agents. The Taunton, Moorcroft, Barnett, and Amulree agents were identified in the U.K., and the Sapporo and Otofuke agents in Japan. Their serological relationships remain to be determined.
|Hepatitis E Virus
|Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) has a particle diameter of 32-34 nm, a buoyant density of 1.29 g/ml in KTar/Gly gradient, and is very labile. Serologically related smaller (27-30 nm) particles are often found in feces of patients with Hepatitis E and are presumed to represent degraded viral particles. HEV has a single-stranded polyadenylated RNA genome of approximately 8 kb. Based on its physicochemical properties it is presumed to be a calici-like virus.
The above information was taken from US Food and Drug Administrations’s Bad Bug Handbook.